19th Ave New York, NY 95822, USA
Instrumentation and Modelling

PET instrumentation

PET Instrumentation includes all development work done with our PET, PET/CT and MRI scanners, oxygen-15 production systems, and PET blood and metabolite laboratory methods. As most of our PET studies are quantitative, validation of used methods and correction algorithms for scatter correction, attenuation correction, partial volume effect correction, Time of Flight etc need phantom measurements as well as comparison measurements with human data.

PET dosimetry

The aim of the PET dosimetry is to develop a method for radiation dose estimate. There are equivalent dose and effective dose estimates in literature for well-known PET tracers.

PET modelling

The aim of the PET modeling is to support the medical PET research projects with best possible analysis tools to evaluate the physiological and kinetic behaviour of various PET tracers in the body. Physiological parameters e.g. perfusion, oxygen and glucose consumption, enzyme activity or receptor density and occupancy can be quantified by specific mathematical models and software.


  • Valentino Bettinardi (Hospedale San Raffaele, HSRA, Milan, Italy)
  • Esa Eronen, Physicist, Lic.Sc.(Tech.)
  • Jukka Haaslahti (HIDEX Inc., Turku, Finland)
  • Jaana Hiltunen (National Public Health Institute , Finland)
  • Prof Olli Nevalainen (UTU, Dept. of ICT)
  • Prof. Jarkko Kari (UTU, Dept. of Mathematics, Finland)
  • Tom Kuusela (UTU, Dept. of Physics, Finland)
  • Prof. Hidehiro Iida (National Cardiovascular Research Center – Research Institute; Department of Investigative Radiology, Osaka, Japan)
  • Nobuyuki Kudomi (Kagawa University, Japan)
  • Patricia Iozzo (Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa, Italy)
  • Ulla Ruotsalainen (TUT, Tampere University of Technology Tampere, Finland)
  • Roman Krais (MPI, Cologne, Germany)

Internal and external funding

  • Tekes, the National Tecnology Agency
  • Cancer Research Foundation of Finland
  • Turku University Foundation


Doctoral theses

  • Ulla Ruotsalainen: Quantification and data analysis in positron emission tomography: organ blood flow, graphical analysis and radiation dosimetry. TUT Signal Processing Laboratory 1997. Tampere University of Technology: Publications 224. 120 pp.
  • Sakari Alenius: On noise reduction in iterative image reconstruction algorithms for emission tomography: median root prior. TUT Signal Processing Laboratory 1999. Tampere University of Technology: Publications 265. 117 pp.
  • Samuel Nyman: NMR spectroscopic applications to biomedicine. Department of Chemistry 2001. University of Turku: A1 277. 156 pp.
  • Mika Teräs: Performance and Methodological Aspects in Positron Emission Tomography. Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine 2008. University of Turku: D 830, 122 pp.

Licentiate’s theses

  • Kalle Koskensalo: Determining the fatty acid compositions of human brown and white adipose tissues in vivo using clinical proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Department of physics 2020, University of Turku, 77 pp.

Master theses

  • Päivi Mähönen: Transfer of PET images to radiotherapy planning. TUT Ragnar Granit Institute 1993.
  • Jarkko Rintaluoma: Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography. TUT Signal Processing Laboratory 1995.
  • Petri Varjolampi: Measuring the radioactivity of gases with flow-through detector in PET-studies. TUT Ragnar Granit Institute 1995.
  • Jari Hirvonen: Statistical analysis of PET images with SPM program. TUT Ragnar Granit Institute 1996.
  • Esa Eronen: Medical image registration. HUT Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics 1998.
  • Petri Numminen: Short transmission acquisition with MRP reconstruction method in order to obtain attenuation correction factors in positron emission tomography. University of Turku, Department of Applied Physics 1999.
  • Anne Seppänen: Fractal analysis of PET images. University of Turku, Department of Applied Mathematics, 2002. (in finnish)
  • Kaisa Sederholm: Global optimization in positron emission tomography modeling. University of Turku, Department of Applied Mathematics, 2003. (in finnish)
  • Hanna Suominen: Yleistettyyn lokeromalliin perustuva spektraalianalyysi positroniemissiotomografia-mallintamisessa. University of Turku, Department of Applied Mathematics, 2005. (in finnish).
  • Harri Merisaari: PET-kuvien partiaalivolyymikorjauksen tekevän ohjelmiston suorituskyvyn testaus. Turun yliopisto, informaatioteknologian laitos, tietojenkäsittelytieteet, 2005.
  • Jani Kuivalainen: Kuvakohtainen liikekorjaus PET-kuvauksessa. Turun yliopisto, fysiikan laitos, 2008.
  • Anselm Tamminen: Vismuttisuojien käyttö TT-angiografiakuvauksesta potilaalle aiheutuvan säteilyannoksen vähentämisessä, 2009.
  • Kalle Koskensalo: A comparison between two MRI devices with different field strengths in spectroscopic use, University of Turku, Department of physics and astronomy, 2013.
  • Jukka Ihalainen: Kliinisten 1H MR-spektroskopiatutkimuksien yhdenmukaisuuden arviointi laitevalmistajien välillä. Turun yliopisto, fysiikan laitos, 2020.

Research articles and abstracts

  • Komar G, Teräs M, Seppänen M, Hirvonen J, Vahlberg T, Bergman J, Minn H. Comparison of 2D and 3D performance for FDG PET with different acquisition times in oncological patients. Nucl Med Commun. 2009 Jan;30(1):16-24.
  • Kudomi N, Järvisalo MJ, Kiss J, Borra R, Viljanen A, Viljanen T, Savunen T, Knuuti J, Iida H, Nuutila P, Iozzo P. Non-invasive estimation of hepatic glucose uptake from [18F]FDG PET images using tissue-derived input functions. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009; 36: 2014-1026.
  • Hirvonen J, Kailajärvi M, Haltia T, Koskimies S, Någren K, Virsu P, Oikonen V, Sipilä H, Ruokoniemi P, Virtanen K, Scheinin M, Rinne JO. Assessment of MAO-B occupancy in the brain with PET and [11C]-L-deprenyl-D2: a dose-finding study with a novel MAO-B inhibitor, EVT 301. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 ;85(5): 506-512.
  • Roivainen A, Någren K, Hirvonen J, Oikonen V, Virsu P, Tolvanen T, Rinne J. Whole-body distribution and metabolism of [N-methyl-11C](R)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide in humans; an imaging agent for in vivo assessment of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor activity with positron emission tomography. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009; 36(4): 671-682.
  • Kajander S, Ukkonen H, Sipilä H, Teräs M, Knuuti J. Low radiation dose imaging of myocardial perfusion and coronary angiography with a hybrid PET/CT scanner. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2009 Jan;29(1):81-8.
  • Kudomi N, Koivuviita N, Liukko KE, Oikonen VJ, Tolvanen T, Iida H, Tertti R, Metsärinne K, Iozzo P, Nuutila P. Parametric renal blood flow imaging using [15O]H2O and PET. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009; 36(4): 683-691.
  • Roivainen A, Någren K, Hirvonen J, Oikonen V, Virsu P, Tolvanen T, Rinne J O. Whole-body distribution and metabolism of [N-methyl-11C](R)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamine in humans; an imaging agent for in vivo assessment of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor activity with positron emission tomography. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009;36:671-682.
  • Hirvonen J, Aalto S, Hagelberg N, Maksimow A, Ingman K, Oikonen V, Virkkala J, Någren K, Scheinin H. Measurement of central μ-opioid receptor binding in vivo with PET and [11C]carfentanil: a test-retest study in healthy subjects. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009 ;36(2): 275-286.
  • Hirvonen J, Johansson J, Teräs M, Oikonen V, Lumme V, Virsu P, Roivainen A, Någren K, Halldin C, Farde L, Hietala J. Measurement of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine transporter binding with high-resolution PET and [11C]PE2I: quantitative modeling and test-retest reproducibility. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008 May;28(5):1059-69.
  • Virta J, Tolvanen T, Någren K, Bruck A, Roivainen A, Rinne J O. 1-11C-Methyl-4-Piperidinyl-N-Butyrate Radiation Dosimetry in Humans by Dynamis Organ-Specific Evaluation. J Nucl Med 2008;49:347-353.
  • Teräs M, Tolvanen T, Johansson JJ, Williams JJ, Knuuti J. Performance of the new generation of whole-body PET/CT scanners: Discovery STE and Discovery VCT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2007; 34: 1683-1692.
  • Liukko K, Oikonen VJ, Tolvanen T, Virtanen KA, Viljanen AP, Sipilä HT, Nuutila P, Iozzo P. Non-invasive estimation of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue blood flow by using [15O]H2O PET with image derived input functions. Open Med. Imaging J. 2007; 1: 7-13.
  • Wallius E, Nyman M, Oikonen V, Hietala J, Ruotsalainen U. Voxel-based NK1 receptor occupancy measurements with [18F]SPA-RQ and positron emission tomography: A procedure for assessing errors from image reconstruction and physiological modeling. Mol Imaging Biol 2007; 9(5):284-294.
  • Scheinin N, Tolvanen T, Wilson I, Arponen E, Någren K, Rinne J O. Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of the Amyloid Imaging Agent 11C-PIB in Humans. J Nucl Med 2007;48:128-133.
  • Naum A, Tuunanen H, Engblom E, Oikonen V, Sipilä H, Iozzo P, Nuutila P, Knuuti J. Simultaneous evaluation of myocardial blood flow, cardiac function and lung water content using [15O]water and positron emission tomography. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2007; 34(4): 563-572.
  • Tolvanen T, Någren K, Yu M, Sutinen E, Havu-Aurén K, Jyrkkiö S, Asola M, Kotoneva E, Nuutila P, Minn H. Human radiation dosimetry of [11C]MeAIB, a new tracer for imaging of system A amino transport. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2006; 48:1178-1184.
  • Slimani L, Oikonen V, Hällsten K, Savisto N, Knuuti J, Nuutila P, Iozzo P. Exercise restores skeletal muscle glucose delivery but not insulin-mediated glucose transport and phosphorylation in obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 91(9): 3394-3403.
  • Pawitan Y, Bettinardi V, Teräs M. Non-Gaussian smoothing of low-count transmission scans for PET whole-body studies. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2005; 24(1): 122-129.
  • Naum A, Laaksonen MS, Tuunanen H, Oikonen V, Teräs M, Kemppainen J, Järvisalo MJ, Nuutila P, Knuuti J. Motion detection and correction for O-15 water dynamic myocardial PET perfusion studies. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2005; 32(12): 1378-1383.
  • Bettinardi V, Alenius S, Numminen P, Teräs M, Gilardi MC, Fazio F, Ruotsalainen U. Implementation and evaluation of an ordered subsets reconstruction algorithm for transmission PET studies using median root prior and inter-update median filtering. Eur J Nucl Med 2003; 30: 222-231.
  • Lehtiö K, Oikonen V, Nyman S, Grönroos T, Roivainen A, Eskola O, Minn H. Quantifying tumour hypoxia with fluorine-18 fluoroerythronitroimidazole ([18F]FETNIM) and PET using the tumour to plasma ratio. Eur J Nucl Med 2003; 30:101-108.
  • Tolvanen T, Lehtiö K, Kulmala J, Oikonen V, Eskola O, Bergman J, Minn H. 18F-fluoroerythronitroimidazole radiation dosimetry in cancer studies. J Nucl Med 2002; 43: 1674-1680.
  • Roeda D, Sipilä H, Bramoullé Y, Enas JD, Dollé F, Vaufrey F, Crouzel C. Carbon-11 labelling of the a-2 antagonist atipamezole. J Labelled Cpd Radiopharm 2002; 45: 37-47.
  • Bettinardi V, Pagani E, Gilardi MC, Alenius S, Thielemans K, Teräs M, Fazio F. Implementation and evaluation of a 3D one-step late reconstruction algorithm for 3D positron emission tomography brain studies using median root prior. Eur J Nucl Med 2002; 29:7-18.
  • Sipilä HT, Clark JC, Peltola O, Teräs M. An automatic [15O]H2O production system for heart and brain studies. J Labelled Cpd Radiopharm 44(1 Suppl):s1066-s1068, 2001.
  • Lehtiö K, Oikonen V, Grönroos T, Eskola O, Kalliokoski K, Bergman J, Solin O, Grénman R, Nuutila P, Minn H. Imaging of blood flow and hypoxia in head and neck cancer: initial evaluation with [15O]H2O and [18F]fluoroerythronitroimidazole PET. J Nucl Med 42:1643-1652, 2001.
  • Oikonen V, Peltoniemi P, Ruotsalainen U, Nuutila P, Knuuti J. Glucose uptake is perfusion-independent in resting skeletal muscle. Eur J Nucl Med 2001; 28:1186.
  • Bertoldo A, Peltoniemi P, Oikonen V, Knuuti J, Nuutila P, Cobelli C. Kinetic modeling of [18F]FDG in skeletal muscle by PET: a four-compartment five-rate-constant model. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 281:E524-E536, 2001.
  • Oikonen V, Allonen T, Någren K, Kajander J, Hietala J. Quantification of [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635 binding: considerations on the cerebellum. Nucl Med Biol. 27:483-486, 2000.
  • Ruotsalainen U, Numminen P, Tolvanen T, Sutinen E, Alenius S. New method for attenuation correction in whole-body PET studies with MRP reconstruction. J Nucl Med 40(5 Suppl):302P, 1999.
  • Roivainen A, Forsback S, Grönroos T, Lehikoinen P, Kähkönen M, Sutinen E, Minn H. Blood metabolism of [methyl-11C]choline; implications for in vivo imaging with PET. Eur J Nucl Med 27, 25-32, 2001
  • Katoh C, Ruotsalainen U, Laine H, Alenius S, Iida H, Nuutila P, Knuuti J. Iterative reconstruction based on median root prior in quantitation of myocardial blood flow and oxygen metabolism. J Nucl Med 40:862-867, 1999.
  • Hietala J, Någren K, Lehikoinen P, Ruotsalainen U. Measurement of striatal D2 dopamine receptor density and affinity with [11C]-raclopride in vivo: A test-retest analysis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 19(2):210-217, 1999.
  • Alenius S, Ruotsalainen U, Astola J. Attenuation correction for PET using count-limited transmission images reconstructed with a median root prior. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci 46 (3):646-651, 1999.
  • Tolvanen T, Hietala J, Haaparanta M, Bergman J, Oikonen V, Ruotsalainen U. Biodistribution of [18]-CFT in human. Eur J Nucl Med 25:1136, 1998.
  • Oikonen V, Nuutila P, Sipilä H, Tolvanen T, Peltoniemi P, Ruotsalainen U. Quantification of oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle with PET and oxygen-15 bolus. Eur J Nucl Med 25:1151,1998.
  • Alenius S, Ruotsalainen U, Astola J. Using a local median as the location of the prior distribution in iterative tomography image reconstruction. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci 45(6):3097-3104, 1998.
  • Ruotsalainen U, Raitakari M, Nuutila P, Oikonen V, Sipilä H, Teräs M, Knuuti J, Bloomfield P, Iida H. Quantitative blood flow measurement of skeletal muscle using [15O]H2O and positron emission tomography. J Nucl Med 38:314-319,1997.
  • Alenius S, Ruotsalainen U. Bayesian image reconstruction for emission tomography based on median root prior. Eur J Nucl Med 24:366-375, 1997.
  • Ruotsalainen U, Suhonen-Polvi H, Eronen E, Kinnala A, Bergman J, Haaparanta M, Teräs M, Solin O, Wegelius U. Estimated radiation dose to the newborn in FDG-PET studies. J Nucl Med 37:387-393,1996.
  • Suhonen-Polvi H, Ruotsalainen U, Kinnala A, Bergman J, Haaparanta M, Teräs M, Mäkelä P, Solin O, Wegelius U. Positron emission tomography with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in early infancy: simplified quantitation methods for measuring cerebral glucose utilization. J Nucl Med 36:1249-1254,1995.
  • Bettinardi V, Gilardi CG, Cargnel S, Rizzo G, Teräs M, Striano G, Fazio F. A hybrid method of attenuation correction for positron emission tomography brain studies. Eur J Nucl Med. 21:1279-1284, 1994.